Parvo (Parvovirus) in Dogs
parvovirus is a highly contagious viral disease that can produce a
life-threatening illness. The virus attacks rapidly dividing cells in a dog’s
body, most severely affecting the intestinal tract. Parvovirus also attacks the
white blood cells, and when young animals are infected, the virus can damage
the heart muscle and cause lifelong cardiac problem
What Are the General Symptoms of Parvovirus?
The general symptoms of parvovirus are lethargy, severe
vomiting, loss of appetite and bloody, foul-smelling diarrhea that can lead to
How Is Parvovirus Transmitted?
Parvovirus is extremely contagious and can be transmitted by
any person, animal or object that comes in contact with an infected dog's
feces. Highly resistant, the virus can live in the environment for months, and
may survive on inanimate objects such as food bowls, shoes, clothes, carpet and
floors. It is common for an unvaccinated dog to contract parvovirus from the
streets, especially in urban areas where there are many dogs.
How Is Parvovirus Diagnosed?
Veterinarians diagnose parvovirus on the basis of clinical
signs and laboratory testing. The Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbant Assay (ELISA)
test has become a common test for parvovirus. The ELISA test kit is used to
detect parvovirus in a dog’s stools, and is performed in the vet’s office in
about 15 minutes. Because this test is not 100% sensitive or specific, your
veterinarian may recommend additional tests and bloodwork.
Which Dogs Are Prone to Parvovirus?
Puppies, adolescent dogs and canines who are not vaccinated are
most susceptible to the virus. The canine parvovirus affects most members of
the dog family (wolves, coyotes, foxes, etc.). Breeds at a higher risk are
Rottweilers, Doberman pinschers, Labrador retrievers, American Staffordshire
terriers and German shepherds.
How Can Parvovirus Be Prevented?
You can protect your dog from this potential killer by making
sure he’s up-to-date on his vaccinations. Parvovirus should be considered a
core vaccine for all puppies and adult dogs. It is usually recommended that
puppies be vaccinated with combination vaccines that take into account the risk
factors for exposure to various diseases. One common vaccine, called a
“5-in-1,” protects the puppy from distemper, hepatitis, leptospirosis,
parvovirus and parainfluenza.
Generally, the first vaccine is given at 6-8 weeks of age and a
booster is given at four-week intervals until the puppy is 16-20 weeks of age,
and then again at one year of age. A puppy’s vaccination program is not
complete before four months of age. Older dogs who have not received full puppy
vaccination series may be susceptible to parvovirus and should also receive at
least one immunization. Consult with your veterinarian about how often your dog
will need to be revaccinated.
Because parvovirus can live in an environment for months, you
will want to take extra care if there has been an infected dog in your house or
yard. Some things are easier to clean and disinfect than others-and even with
excellent cleaning, parvovirus can be difficult to eradicate. Parvo is
resistant to many typical disinfectants. A solution of one part bleach to 32
parts water can be used where organic material is not present. The infected
dog’s toys, food dish and water bowl should be properly cleaned and then
disinfected with this solution for 10 minutes. If not disinfected, these
articles should be discarded. You can also use the solution on the soles of
your shoes if you think you've walked through an infected area. Areas that are
harder to clean (grassy areas, carpeting and wood, for example) may need to be
sprayed with disinfectant, or even resurfaced.