Estrus, or heat, is the stage in a female dog's reproductive cycle during which she becomes receptive to mating with males. At this time, estrogen levels first increase and then sharply decrease, and mature eggs are released from the ovaries. Ideally, your dog should be spayed before she enters her first heat cycle.
Signs that your dog is in pain when passing urine include:
Vocalizing while trying to urinate
Avoiding your touch
Peeing more often while producing only a little urine
Urine with blood or mucus in it
You'll need to take your dog to the vet immediately if your pet produces only a few drops of urine -- or none -- when he or she tries to urinate. Don't wait: being unable to urinate can quickly result in serious illness for your dog or even death.
Painful Urination in Dogs: Common Causes and Treatments
A few of the more common causes of painful urination in dogs include:
While your dog's bladder is normally a sterile place, sometimes bacteria can climb from the genital area into the bladder, leading to infection and inflammation. Symptoms of a bladder infection can include painful urination, urinating only a little bit at a time, incontinence (unable to hold urine in), bloody urine, or urinating often. Some dogs show no symptoms at all.
Treatment for simple bladder infections is usually 10-14 days of antibiotics, with symptom improvement often within the first few days. Sometimes the urine is cultured to determine which antibiotic will work best. To prevent a relapse, always be sure your dog completes the entire course of antibiotics your vet prescribed.
Bladder Crystals and Bladder Stones
Sometimes the naturally occurring minerals in your dog's urine can clump together, forming crystals or stones. Many things can cause the minerals to clump, including an infection, medication, genetics, diet, how often your dog urinates, and how much water he drinks.
Symptoms of urinary stones can vary depending on whether they're in the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra, but signs may include slow and painful urination, inability to urinate, bloody urine, vomiting, fatigue, as well as abdominal or kidney pain.