Compulsive Behavior in Dogs
The word “compulsive” describes the repetitive, irresistible urge to perform a behavior. A dog who displays compulsive behavior repeatedly performs one or more behaviors over and over, to the extent that it interferes with his normal life. The behavior he’s doing doesn’t seem to have any purpose, but he’s compelled to do it anyway. Some dogs will spend almost all their waking hours engaging in repetitive behaviors. They might lose weight, suffer from exhaustion and even physically injure themselves. Dogs display many different kinds of compulsions, such as spinning, pacing, tail chasing, fly snapping, barking, shadow or light chasing, excessive licking and toy fixation. It’s important to note that normal dogs also engage in behaviors like barking and licking, but they usually do so in response to specific triggers.
Some breeds are more likely to develop certain compulsive disorders. For instance, many Doberman pinschers, golden retrievers and Labrador retrievers have excessive licking problems. This licking may be so persistent that it may result in damage to the skin or underlying tissues, also known as acral lick dermatitis or lick granuloma. Doberman pinschers seem to engage in flank sucking more often than other breeds. Bull terriers repetitively spin more often than other breeds. German shepherd dogs seem vulnerable to tail-chasing compulsions. Sometimes they even bite and chew their tails when they “catch” them, causing hair loss or serious injury.
Compulsive behavior can develop for a number of reasons. Sometimes dogs start compulsive behaviors for no obvious reason at all. Other dogs develop compulsions after having physical conditions that cause them to lick or chew their bodies. For example, if your dog injures his paw and licks it, he might continue his repetitive licking behavior after his injury has completely healed. A dog’s lifestyle can sometimes contribute to the development compulsive behavior. For example, repetitive behavior is more likely to develop in dogs whose living conditions cause anxiety or stress. Examples of dogs in situations that can contribute to the development of compulsive disorders include:
- Dogs who are frequently tied up or confined and forced to live in small areas
- Dogs who experience social conflict, such as a long separation from a companion or frequent aggression from other dogs in the family
- Dogs who lack opportunities to engage in normal canine behavior, such as socializing with people and other dogs
- Dogs who deal with conflicting emotions or motivations (for instance, a dog needs to go into the yard to relieve himself but is afraid to enter the area because of a frightening experience that once took place there)
- Dogs who are physically abused or punished randomly and unpredictably
Research has shown that although conflict and anxiety in a dog’s life can initially trigger a compulsive disorder, the compulsive behavior might continue to happen after the stressful elements in a dog’s life have been eliminated.