The best time to acquire a puppy is at 8 to 12 weeks of age. At this age a
puppy should be well socialized, will have received the first series of immunizations, and should be
weaned and eating solid food. The breeder can usually make a good guess about
whether a puppy is of show or breeding quality. But keep in mind that picking a
future champion at 8 weeks of age is a problem, even for breeders with
Most puppies look healthy at first glance, but a closer inspection may make
some puppies more desirable than others. Take your time and go over each puppy
from head to tail before making the final decision.
Incontinence is loss of voluntary control over the act
of voiding. This medical condition must to be differentiated from a
housetraining problem and/or submissive urination, especially in young dogs. Incontinent dogs wet
their bed or the floor where they are sleeping, urinate inappropriately in the
house, sometimes dribble urine, and may void more frequently than normal. There
may be an ammonialike odor about the dog’s bedding. The skin around the
penis or vulva may be scalded.
Begin by examining the head. The nose should be cool and moist. Nasal discharge or frequent
sneezing is a sign of poor health. Brachycephalic breeds, such as Pugs and
Pekingese, often have nostrils that collapse when the dog
breathes in. This is undesirable.
Check the puppy for a correct bite. The correct bite for most breeds is a
scissors bite, in which the upper incisors just slightly overlap the lower
ones. An even bite, in which the incisors meet edge to edge, is equally
acceptable in most breeds.
Feel for a soft spot on the dome of the skull. If present, the fontanel is
open. This is not desirable. In toy breeds, an open fontanel can be associated
The eyes should be clear and bright. If you see tear stains on the muzzle,
look for eyelids that roll in or out,
extra eyelashes, or conjunctivitis. The pupils
should be dark and have no visible lines or white spots that may indicate
congenital cataracts or retained fetal membranes. The haw (third eyelid) may be visible.
This should not be taken as a sign of disease unless it is swollen and
The ears should stand correctly for the breed, although in some breeds, such
as German Shepherd Dogs, the ears may not stand up fully until 4 to 6 months of
age. The tips should be healthy and well furred. Crusty tips with bare spots
suggest a skin disease such as sarcoptic mange. The ear canals
should be clean and sweet-smelling. A buildup of wax with a rancid odor may be
caused by ear mites. Head shaking and
tenderness about the ears indicate an ear canal infection.
Feel the chest with the palm of your hand to see if the heart seems
especially vibrant. This could be a clue to a congenital heart defect. The
puppy should breathe in and out without effort. A flat chest, especially when
accompanied by trouble inhaling, indicates an airway obstruction. It is seen
most commonly in brachycephalic breeds such as Pugs, Boston Terriers, and