Prolonged exposure to cold will result in a drop in body temperature. Toy
breeds, breeds with short coats, puppies, and very old dogs are most susceptible to hypothermia. Because a wet coat loses its insulating
properties, hypothermia is a potential complication for all dogs who have been
submerged in cold water. Hypothermia also occurs along with shock, after a long
course of anesthesia, and in newborn puppies who get chilled because of
inadequately heated whelping quarters. Prolonged cold exposure burns up stored
energy and results in a low blood sugar.
Signs of hypothermia are violent shivering followed by listlessness, a
rectal temperature below 95°F (35°C), weak pulse, lethargy, and coma. Note that
hypothermic dogs can withstand prolonged periods of cardiac arrest, because the
low body temperature also lowers the metabolic rate. CPR may be successful in such individuals.
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Treatment: Wrap the dog in a blanket or coat and carry him into a warm
building. If the dog is wet (he fell into icy water), dry him vigorously with
towels. Wrap the dog in a warm blanket and take his rectal temperature. If the
temperature is above 95°F, continue the warm blankets and encourage the dog to
swallow a sugar solution such as honey, or 4 teaspoons (32g) of sugar dissolved
in a pint of water.
If the dog’s rectal temperature is below 95°F, notify your veterinarian.
While awaiting instructions, begin rapid warming by applying warm water bottles
wrapped in towels to the dog’s armpits and chest, then wrap the dog in a
blanket. The temperature of the packs should be about that of a baby bottle
(warm to the wrist). Take the rectal temperature every 10 minutes. Change the
warming packs until the rectal temperature reaches 100°F (37.8°C). Do not apply
heat directly to the dog, as this may cause burns. For the same reason, do not
use a hair dryer to warm the dog.
Frostbite occurs when a part of the body freezes. It often accompanies
hypothermia. Frostbite tends to involve the tail, ear tips, pads of the feet,
and scrotum. These parts are the most exposed and least protected by fur.
Frostbitten skin is pale white or blue. As
circulation returns, it becomes red and swollen and may begin to peel.
Eventually it looks black with a line of demarcation between live and dead
tissue. Dead skin and tissue separates from the body in one to three weeks.
Treatment: Apply warm (not hot) water soaks to the frostbitten part for 20
minutes, or until the tissue becomes flushed. Never use snow or ice; tissue
damage is made much more severe if thawing is followed by refreezing. Do not
rub or massage the affected parts. Handle them carefully. Take your dog to a
veterinarian for further evaluation and treatment.
Note that as sensation returns, frostbitten parts can be painful. Prevent
the dog from biting at the skin and inflicting further injury. The total extent of damage may not be apparent
for a week or more.
WebMD Veterinary Reference from "Dog Owner's Home Veterinary Handbook"