They may be our best friends, but dogs are still animals and they can bite. In fact, dogs bite about 4.5 million Americans every year, half of them children between ages 5 and 9. One out of every five of those bites causes an injury that requires medical attention, according to the Centers for Disease Control. Children are also more likely than adults to be injured by a dog bite.
Although strays or other strange dogs can bite, most of the time people are actually bitten by a dog they know, which could be a friend's dog or even the family pet.
Canine leptospirosis is caused by an order of bacteria called spirochetes-slender, spirally undulating bacteria. There are at least four species of the leptospira bacteria (or serovars) that can infect dogs: canicola, icterohemorrhagiae, grippotyphosa, and pomona.
Leptospira are found in wild and domestic animals. The bacteria are spread in the urine, often making their way into water sources and remaining infective in the soil for up to six months. Rats, pigs, raccoons, cattle, skunks, and opossums...
When choosing a dog for a family pet, pick one with a good temperament.
Stay away from any dogs you don't know.
Never leave young children alone with a dog -- especially an unfamiliar one.
Don't try to play with any dog that is eating or feeding her puppies.
Whenever you approach a dog, do so slowly, and give the dog the chance to approach you.
If a dog becomes aggressive, do not run away or scream. Stay calm, move slowly, and don't make eye contact with the dog.
Dog Bite Treatments
Although you can provide first aid for a dog bite at home, it's very important to see a doctor, especially if an unfamiliar dog bit you, the bite is deep, you can't stop the bleeding, or there are any signs of infection (redness, swelling, warmth, pus). Dog bites can cause infections that need to be treated with antibiotics.
To care for a dog bite injury at home:
Place a clean towel over the injury to stop any bleeding.
Try to keep the injured area elevated.
Wash the bite carefully with soap and water.
Apply a sterile bandage to the wound.
Apply antibiotic ointment to the injury every day to prevent infection.
When you visit the doctor, be prepared to answer a few questions, including:
Do you know the owner of the dog?
If so, is the dog up to date on all vaccinations, including rabies?
Did the bite occur because the dog was provoked, or was the dog unprovoked?
What health conditions do you have? People with diabetes, liver disease, illnesses that suppress the immune system, and other health conditions may be at greater risk for a more severe infection.