Diabetes mellitus, sometimes called sugar diabetes, is
a common disease in dogs. Golden Retrievers, German
Shepherd Dogs, Miniature Schnauzers, Keeshonden, and Poodles have the highest
incidence, but all breeds can be affected. Females with the disease outnumber
males by three to one. The average age of onset is 6 to 9 years.
Diabetes is a result of inadequate production of insulin by the islet cells
in the pancreas. There may be a genetic predisposition for this in some dogs.
Islet cell destruction also occurs in some cases of pancreatitis. Insulin enables glucose to pass into cells,
where it is metabolized to produce energy for metabolism. Insulin deficiency
results in hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and glycosuria (high urine sugar).
Glucose in the urine causes the diabetic animal to excrete large volumes of
urine. In turn, this creates dehydration and the urge to drink large amounts of
Initially, dogs who do not metabolize enough sugar have an increase in
appetite and a desire to consume more food. Later, with the effects of
malnourishment, the appetite drops.
In summary, the signs of early diabetes are frequent urination, drinking
lots of water, a large appetite, and unexplained loss of weight. The laboratory
findings are high glucose levels in the blood and urine.
In more advanced cases there is lethargy, loss of appetite, vomiting, dehydration, weakness, and coma. Cataracts
are common in diabetic dogs. Ultimately, diabetes is a disease that affects all
organs. Diabetic dogs will have enlarged livers, be susceptible to infections,
and often develop neurological problems if not treated.
Diabetic ketoacidosis isa condition associated with severe hyperglycemia in
which ketones (acids) build up in the blood. Ketones are byproducts of the
metabolism of fat. In diabetic ketoacidosis, fats are metabolized for energy
because sugar is unavailable. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be recognized by
weakness, vomiting, rapid breathing, and the odor of acetone on the breath (it
smells like nail polish remover). Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening
emergency. If you suspect diabetic ketoacidosis, take your dog at once to the
Dietary control and daily injections of insulin can regulate most diabetic
dogs, allowing them to lead active, healthy lives. Oral hypoglycemic agents used for treating diabetes in
people have not been effective in dogs, but research is continuing in this
Insulin requirements cannot be predicted solely on the basis of the dog’s
weight, because the degree of pancreatic failure is different in every dog. The
daily insulin dose must be established for each individual. In the newly
diagnosed diabetic, insulin therapy is started at home. After a week of
treatment, the dog is brought back to the clinic and a blood glucose curve (a
series of blood sugar tests drawn over 12 to 24 hours) is obtained to see when
the blood glucose peaks and hits its lows. Refinements are then made in the
dosage and timing of the injections. How to prepare and inject the insulin will
be explained to you by your veterinarian. You may be asked to monitor urine
glucose levels by collecting urine samples and using a test strip (a small
piece of paper that indicates the glucose levels in urine).