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    Canine Flu Symptoms and Treatment

    ASPCA logoThere are many causes of kennel cough, both bacterial and viral. Canine influenza virus (CIV) is one of the viral causes of kennel cough. This highly contagious respiratory disease has affected thousands of dogs in the United States. Because CIV is a relatively new virus, most dogs have not been exposed to it before. Dogs of any age, breed and vaccine status are susceptible to this infection.

    How Could My Dog Catch Canine Influenza Virus?

    CIV is easily transmitted between dogs through a combination of aerosols, droplets and direct contact with respiratory secretions. The virus does not survive for a long time in the environment, so dogs usually get CIV when they are in close proximity to other infectious dogs.

    Which Dogs Are Prone to Canine Influenza Virus?

    Any dog who interacts with large numbers of dogs is at increased risk for exposure. There are vaccines available that may help protect against certain strains of canine influenza -- check with your veterinarian to see if they recommend that your dog be vaccinated.

    What Are the General Symptoms of Canine Influenza Virus?

    While most dogs will show typical symptoms of kennel cough, a small percentage of dogs will develop a more severe illness. Symptoms of canine influenza virus include:

    •      Coughing
    •      Sneezing
    •      Variable fever
    •      Clear nasal discharge that progresses to thick, yellowish-green mucus
    •      Rapid/difficult breathing
    •       Loss of appetite
    •       Lethargy

    Can Dogs Die From Canine Influenza Virus?

    If CIV is quickly diagnosed and treated, the fatality rate is quite low. Deaths are usually caused by secondary complications, such as pneumonia. It is very important that dogs with CIV receive proper veterinary care.

    How Is Canine Influenza Virus Diagnosed?

    Veterinarians will typically conduct a thorough physical examination and run a series of tests to diagnose the illness.

    How Is Canine Influenza Treated?

    Most treatment for canine flu involves supportive treatments that are given while the body fights off the virus. Specific anti-viral medications are available, but they aren’t always used because they work the best early on, often before we realize that the dog is even sick. However, supportive care and appropriate treatment of secondary infections are important. Your veterinarian may advise the following to soothe your dog while the condition runs its course:

    • Good nutrition and supplements to raise immunity
    • A warm, quiet and comfortable spot to rest
    • Medications to treat secondary bacterial infections
    • Intravenous fluids to maintain hydration
    • Workup and treatment for pneumonia

    Be advised, while most dogs will fight the infection within 10 to 30 days, secondary infections require antibiotics and, in the case of pneumonia, hospitalization.

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