Major obstructions of the urethra can occur with the first episode of FLUTD or during subsequent
attacks. With partial or complete obstruction of the urethra, the lower abdomen
becomes distended and painful to touch. An obstructed cat spends a lot of time
straining to urinate (many owners mistake this for constipation) without producing
Female cats do not obstruct as frequently as males, because their urethra is
wider and crystals and plugs pass easier. However, females can become
obstructed with urethral uroliths.
Cats like to scratch. They scratch during play. They scratch while stretching. They scratch to mark territory or as a threatening signal other cats. And because cats’ claws need regular sharpening, cats scratch on things to remove frayed, worn outer claws and expose new, sharper claws. Unfortunately, all this scratching can cause a lot of damage to furniture, drapes and carpeting!
As pressure increases in the upper urinary tract, the kidneys fail and stop
making urine. Wastes build in the blood, leading to uremia (a toxic buildup of
urea). The cat loses her appetite, acts sluggish, and begins to vomit. If
unrelieved, irreversible kidney damage occurs, leading to death. Thus, it is of
vital importance to relieve the obstruction as soon as possible. Keep in mind
that cats often seek seclusion when they are ill or in pain; therefore, a cat
with symptomatic FLUTD should not be allowed outdoors.
Treatment: A cat with a plugged urethra needs immediate veterinary
attention. This is an emergency with potentially life-threatening consequences.
An obstructed male often protrudes his penis. You can massage the penis by
rolling it between your thumb and index finger. This may crush the plug and
allow the material to be expelled. Even if this is successful, veterinary
attention and possible hospitalization are required.
Even if you can remove the plug so the cat can now urinate, you must take
the cat to your veterinarian for follow-up veterinary care. Any plugs or
crystals that are passed or collected should be analyzed so the correct
treatment plan can be developed.
To relieve an obstruction, your veterinarian should first relieve the
pressure in the bladder by emptying it via cystocentesis, a procedure in which
a fine needle attached to a syringe is inserted into the bladder through the
abdomen and urine is drawn into the syringe. This allows time for the kidneys
to start functioning again and the cat to be stabilized with intravenous fluids
prior to sedation. Relieving the obstruction must be done under sedation or anesthesia. Your veterinarian
will insert a small, soft, rubber or flexible polyethylene catheter through the
urethra into the bladder to relieve the obstruction. Intravenous fluids are
continued to rehydrate the cat and increase the flow of urine. Antibiotics may be prescribed
to prevent or treat an associated bladder infection. After obstruction, many
cats need continued intravenous or subcutaneous fluids for several days, until
kidney function returns to normal and the cat is voiding normally.
Following discharge from the veterinary hospital, the cat should be placed
on a special diet; which diet depends on the type of crystals found in the
urine. For cats with magnesium phosphate crystals, diets such as Hill’s
Prescription Diet Feline s/d, Eukanuba Low pH/S, Purina UR St/Ox, Royal Canin
Control Formula, Royal Canin Dissolution Formula, and Royal Canin Urinary SO 30
help dissolve any residual struvite crystals or stones in the urinary bladder.
These foods are low in magnesium and aid in maintaining a normal acid urine. In
cats fed these special diets exclusively, signs associated with FLUTD will
normally cease within the first five to seven days. To completely dissolve all
residual struvite crystals or stones, the diet should be followed for one to
two months. These diets, however, are high in salt and ordinarily are not used
as a maintenance food. It is important to feed only the prescribed diet. Do not
feed fish, shellfish, cheese, vitamin-mineral supplements, or table scraps.
These foods contain extra magnesium and also produce an alkaline urine.