Surface tumors are common in cats. It is often impossible to
determine whether a surface tumor is benign or malignant by appearance alone.
The only conclusive way to make a diagnosis is by biopsy, a procedure in which
tissue or cells are removed by your veterinarian and examined under a
microscope by a veterinary pathologist.
For small tumors, it is best for your veterinarian to remove the growth and
present the entire specimen to the pathologist. For tumors larger than 1 inch
(25 mm) across, it may be advisable for your veterinarian to obtain a tissue
sample by fine needle aspiration. In this procedure, a needle connected to a
syringe is inserted into the tumor and cells are obtained by pulling back on
the plunger. Alternatively, the vet can use a cutting needle to obtain a core
sample. An open biopsy, in which an incision is made, is preferred for
suspected sarcomas and tumors that present diagnostic problems for the
Inflammation of the smaller bronchi is called bronchitis. It is characterized
by repeated coughing, which further
irritates the lining of the tubes and spreads infection to the trachea. The
trachea and the bronchi have a protective layer of mucus that traps foreign
materials and infectious agents. Along with hairlike cilia that move foreign
material toward the mouth, this mucus layer serves as a major defense system
against infection. Conditions that interfere with the function of the
Epidermal inclusion cysts, also called sebaceous cysts, are benign tumors
that arise from glands found beneath the skin. They can occur anywhere on the
body. Although less common in cats than in dogs, they are still the most common
surface tumor in cats.
A sebaceous cyst is made of a thick capsule that surrounds a lump of cheesy
material called sebum. It may grow to 1 inch (25 mm) or more. Eventually, it is
likely to become infected and will have to be drained. This sometimes leads to
Treatment: Most cysts should be removed. Cysts can often be removed by
electrocautery or cryotherapy. At the very least, sedation and a local
anesthetic will be required, and many cats may need general anesthesia.
Warts and Papillomas
These growths are not nearly as common in cats as they are in people. They
tend to occur on the skin of older cats. Some are on a stalk, while others look
like a piece of chewing gum stuck to the skin.
Treatment: If they become irritated or start to bleed, they should be
removed. In general, they are not a threat to the health of the cat.
A lipoma is a growth made of mature fat cells surrounded by a fibrous
capsule that sets it apart from the surrounding body fat. It can be recognized
by a round, smooth appearance and soft, fatlike consistency. Lipomas grow
slowly and may get to be several inches in diameter. They are not common in
cats and are not painful.
Treatment: Surgical removal is indicated only for cosmetic reasons or to
rule out a malignant growth.
A hematoma is a collection of
blood beneath the skin, caused by a blow or a contusion. The area will be
swollen, somewhat painful, and usually a reddish-purple color.
Treatment: Small hematomas may resolve spontaneously. Large ones may need to
be opened and drained. Ear flap hematomas require special care.
A small knot may be present at the site of an injection and is often present
for a few days in kittens who have been given their vaccinations. It seldom
requires treatment. If a firm area remains where an injection was given or
develops afterward, you need to contact your veterinarian immediately. This
could be a vaccine-associated sarcoma.
A painful swelling beneath the skin may be an abscess. You can usually move
and compress them, and they feel warm to the touch.
WebMD Veterinary Reference from "Cat Owner's Home Veterinary Handbook"