The parathyroids are four small glands in the neck located near the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands secrete the hormone PTH, which is essential to bone metabolism and blood calcium regulation. As the blood calcium level falls, the parathyroid glands compensate by releasing more PTH, which raises the calcium level in the blood by drawing calcium out of the bones. High serum phosphorus levels will also stimulate the body to secrete PTH. Accordingly, either a low serum calcium or a high serum phosphorus will cause an excess of PTH in the blood. When this situation goes unchecked, the bones become demineralized, thin, and often look cystic (small holes in the bone) on X-ray. Minor stress can cause a fracture.
There are several conditions related to abnormal parathyroid gland metabolism.
Diarrhea is characterized by frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. It can be caused by something as simple as a change in diet or a more serious illness or infection. Diarrhea may be sudden in onset and short in duration. It can also last for weeks to months or occur off and on. A single bout of diarrhea is generally not a cause for concern in cats-but if it persists for more than a day or two, it can lead to dehydration.
Low levels of parathyroid hormones are almost always associated with the inadvertent removal of the parathyroid glands during surgery for hyperthyroidism. In this case, cats have a low level of blood calcium and may have muscle tremors.
Treatment: Treatment involves oral or even intravenous calcium supplementation. Many cats adapt to this problem with time and medication, but it can be serious immediately after the surgery.
This rare condition is due to a parathyroid gland tumor that produces excess hormone. These are usually benign adenomas and are seen in older cats.
Treatment: Surgical removal of the affected gland is the only possible treatment.
Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
This condition is the result of long-standing kidney disease that causes the cat to retain phosphorus. The high serum phosphorus stimulates the parathyroid glands to produce excessive amounts of PTH. Effects on the bones are the same as those of nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (page 366). However, signs of kidney failure are usually the main symptoms.
Treatment: Treatment is directed toward correcting the kidney disease.
Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
The cause of this nutritional bone disease is a diet consisting primarily of organ meats, such as hearts, livers, and kidneys. Such a diet is too high in phosphorus and too low in calcium and vitamin D. (Vitamin D is necessary for calcium to be absorbed from the small intestine.)