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Treating and Preventing Fleas on Cats

The ordinary cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is the most common parasite on the cat’s skin. All cats can be affected except for those living at higher elevations, because fleas do not live above 5,000 feet. Cats living indoors can have fleas year-round.

Fleas survive by jumping onto a host animal, cutting open their skin, and feeding on the blood. In most cases, they cause only a mild itch; but a heavy infestation, especially of kittens or older, ill cats, might cause severe anemia or even the death of the cat. Fleas also are an intermediate host of tapeworm. Some cats experience hypersensitivity to flea saliva. This produces intense itching and a localized or generalized skin reaction.

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Cat’s Fur: Problems and Grooming

Brushing your cat not only removes dirt, grease and dead hair from her coat, but it helps to remove skin flakes and stimulates blood circulation, improving the overall condition of her skin. One or two brushings per week will help kitty to keep her healthy glow and allow her to bask in yummy together time-and you’ll find that regular sessions are especially beneficial when your cat ages and is no longer able to groom so meticulously on her own.

Read the Cat’s Fur: Problems and Grooming article > >

Flea infestation can be diagnosed by finding fleas on the cat or by seeing black and white, salt-and-pepper-like grains in the coat. These particles are flea feces (the “pepper”) and flea eggs (the “salt”). Fecal material is made up of digested blood. When brushed onto a wet paper, it turns a reddish brown.

The adult flea is a small dark brown insect about 2.5 millimeters in size and can be seen with the naked eye. Although fleas have no wings and cannot fly, they do have powerful back legs and can jump great distances. Fleas move through the hair rapidly and are difficult to catch.

Look for fleas on your cat’s back and around the tail and hindquarters by running a fine-toothed comb through her fur. Fleas are sometimes seen in the groin area, where it is warm and there is less hair. Itching is most pronounced in these areas.

New Methods of Flea Control

New products such as Program, Advantage, and Frontline have practically replaced the use of dips, powders, sprays, and shampoos to treat and prevent fleas. The new products are more effective and safer than the traditional insecticides. They are also easier to administer.

Program (the brand name for lufenuron) was the first and remains one of the most popular agents for controlling fleas on cats. Program is a tablet or liquid given once a month with a meal. There is also an injectable form that is given every six months.

The active ingredient accumulates in the cat’s subcutaneous tissue and the flea must bite the cat for Program to work. Program works by inhibiting flea eggs from growing and hatching. This leads to a steady drop in the number of new fleas in the environment. Its effect is limited to the hard outer shell of the flea, making it completely harmless to mammals. However, because mature fleas are not affected, it can take 30 to 60 days or longer for the adult fleas on the cat to die of old age before you notice a reduction in itching and scratching. All pets in the household must be on Program for it to be effective.

WebMD Veterinary Reference from "Cat Owner's Home Veterinary Handbook"

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