Coccidiosis usually targets young kittens shortly after weaning, although adult cats can be affected. The disease is highly contagious. Immunity following recovery from infection is short-lived. Cats who recover often become carriers and shed adult oocysts in their feces.
There are several species of coccidia. Only Cystoisospora (formerly known as Isospora) felis is directly transmitted by fecal contamination from cat to cat. Other species use birds and animals as intermediate transport hosts. These species complete their life cycle when the transport host is eaten by the cat. Kittens acquire Cystoisospora felis from mothers who are carriers.
During the first few weeks of life, a kitten’s primary concerns are feeding, keeping warm, developing social skills and learning how to excrete on his own. In most cases, humans will simply watch the mother cat perform her duties. However, if the kitten in your care has been separated from his mother or if the mother cat has rejected her young or cannot produce enough milk, caring for him is up to you.
Five to seven days after ingesting the oocysts, infective cysts appear in the feces. Much of the life cycle takes place in the cells lining the small intestines. Diarrhea is the most common sign of infection. The feces are mucuslike and tinged with blood. In severe cases, a bloody diarrhea may develop. These cases are complicated by weakness, dehydration, and anemia.
Coccidia can be found in the stools of kittens without causing problems, until some stress factor, such as overcrowding, malnutrition, weaning problems, an outbreak of ascarids, or shipping reduces their resistance. Normal fecal flotations will pick up these parasites.
Treatment: Offer a bland diet and encourage fluid intake. A severely dehydrated or anemic cat may need to be hospitalized for fluid replacement or blood transfusion. Kittens are more likely to require intensive care than adult cats.
Supportive treatment is important, since in most cases the acute phase of the illness lasts about ten days and the cat then recovers. Sulfonamides and nitrofurazone are the antibiotics of choice.
Known carriers should be isolated and treated. Cat quarters and runs should be washed daily with disinfectants and boiling water to destroy infective oocysts.
This disease is caused by a protozoan of the Giardia species. Cats have their own species-specific version of Giardia. Cats acquire the infection by drinking water from streams and other sources that are contaminated with infective cysts.
Most infections in adult cats are subclinical. Young cats and kittens can develop a diarrhea syndrome characterized by the passage of large volumes of foul-smelling, watery stools. The diarrhea maybe acute or chronic, intermittent or persistent, and may be accompanied by weight loss.