Urinary Tract Diseases in Cats
Most urinary tract diseases are associated with a disturbance in the normal
pattern of voiding. That is why it is so important to get a veterinary checkup
for any cat
who has been using the litter box faithfully and suddenly stops doing so. Signs
include the following:
- Excessive urination (polyuria). Frequent voiding of normal amounts of urine
disease. A cat compensates for a high urine output by drinking large
amounts of water (polydipsia). You may notice the increased drinking first. Diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism are among the other causes of excessive
thirst and urination.
- No urine (anuria). This refers to a cat who is not producing any urine. If
a cat cannot urinate, deadly toxins will build up in her system. This could be
the result of a urinary blockage or severe kidney
- Painful urination (dysuria). This is characterized by distress during
urination with prolonged squatting and straining; failure to pass urine after
many tries; and passage of mucus, blood clots, or bloody urine. The cat may
spend an unusual amount of time licking at the urogenital area. Pain and
swelling within the lower abdomen suggest an overdistended bladder. Cats will
sometimes urinate in unusual locations, rejecting the litter box. Bathtubs and
sinks are common alternative sites.
- Blood in the urine (hematuria). When accompanied by painful urination,
blood in the first urine flow indicates a problem in the urethra or bladder. A
uniformly bloody urine without pain suggests kidney disease.
- Urinary incontinence. This is characterized by the loss of
voluntary control over voiding or by inappropriate urination-often the result
of neurological disease. The cat may void frequently, and/or dribble and
urinate in unusual places. Because of overlapping symptoms and the possibly of
more than one problem at the same time, it is difficult to make an exact
diagnosis based on the symptoms alone. Physical urinary incontinence needs to
be distinguished from behavioral urination elimination problems. This can only
be done by a veterinarian, possibly working with a behaviorist.
How to Collect and Test Urine
In the diagnosis of urinary tract disease, laboratory analysis is of
considerable help. Routine tests are urinalysis, blood chemistries, and a
complete blood count (see appendix C). Your veterinarian may request a sample
of your cat’s urine. The procedure for collecting a urine sample at home is as
- Thoroughly clean and dry the litter box, then replace the normal kitty
litter with an inert substance, such as Styrofoam packing, aquarium gravel
(which does not absorb urine and can be washed between samples), or a special
litter called No-Sorb, available from your veterinarian.
- After the cat has voided, pour the urine from the litter box into a small,
clean, sealable plastic or glass container. This container should be thoroughly
cleaned and dried before the sample is poured into it.
- To store the sample, if necessary, place it in the refrigerator in the
sealed container. The sample should be taken to the veterinarian within two
hours. After this time, evaluation of the urine for crystals may be