A sprain is a joint injury caused by a sudden stretching or tearing of the
ligaments. The signs are pain over the joint, swelling of the tissues, and
temporary lameness. If the cat
refuses to put weight on a leg, have him examined by a veterinarian to rule out
a fracture or dislocation. The same is true for any injury that fails to
improve in four days. X-rays should be taken.
Treatment: The primary treatment is to rest the injured body part. Ice packs
help to reduce pain and swelling. Add crushed ice to a plastic bag. Place the
bag over the injured joint and hold in place with an elastic bandage or your
hand. New commercial cool packs work well, as do bags of frozen vegetables.
Apply the cold pack for 15 minutes every hour for the first three hours. If it
is left too long, it may cause tissue damage.
First discovered in the 1960s, feline leukemia virus is a transmittable RNA retrovirus that can severely inhibit a cat’s immune system. It is one of the most commonly diagnosed causes of disease and death in domestic cats.
Because the virus doesn’t always manifest symptoms right away, any new cat entering a household-and any sick cat-should be tested for FeLV.
Consult your veterinarian for safe pain and anti-inflammatory medications.
Never give a cat acetaminophen (Tylenol) or any other over-the-counter pain
A tendon may be stretched, partly torn, or completely separated (ruptured).
An irritated or inflamed tendon is tendonitis. Strained tendons follow sudden
wrenching or twisting injuries. The tendons in the front and back paws are the
ones most often strained. Signs of tendonitis include temporary lameness, pain
on bending and straightening the joint, and tenderness and swelling over the
length of the tendon.
Rupture of the Achilles tendon that attaches to the hock joint is caused by
sudden and extreme flexion. This tendon is most often injured in auto accidents
and cat fights.
Treatment: Stretched tendons are treated in the same way as sprains. A
ruptured tendon is an emergency and requires immediate veterinary attention.
Surgery will be performed and the cat may need a splint or cast, as well as
pain medications and follow-up physical therapy.
A cat with a ruptured Achilles tendon walks on his heel instead of the
Muscle Strains and Contusions
A bruised or torn muscle can be caused by sudden stretching of the muscle
fibers, overexertion from prolonged use, or a blow to the muscle. Signs are
lameness, knotting of the muscle, tenderness over the injured part, and
discoloration caused by bleeding. Muscle atrophy, the gradual decline in muscle
mass due to a lack of use, starts as soon as 24 to 48 hours after a muscle is
injured and not used.
Treatment: Rest and cold packs are recommended. Massage may be helpful, and
physical therapy exercises may speed healing. Check with your veterinarian.
Ruptured Cruciate (Torn Knee Ligament)
The knee is stabilized by two internal cruciate ligaments that cross one
another in the middle of the knee joint. A pad of cartilage (the meniscus) sits
between the bones of the joint as padding. The knee ligaments may rupture and
the meniscus can tear after a car accident or a fall from a height. Signs of
injury include joint swelling, pain on flexing and extending the knee, and
looseness of the joint. You may be able to detect a click in the joint, which
is a sign of a torn meniscus.
Treatment: Immediate surgical repair of a badly damaged knee joint is the
treatment of choice. A mild injury, perhaps limited to the meniscus, can be
treated with cage confinement for three to five weeks to rest the joint and
allow it to heal by itself. If lameness persists, surgery should be considered.
TTouch (a trademarked form of physical therapy) techniques, massage, and
physical therapy, even hydrotherapy, can help the healing process for a cat
with a ruptured cruciate.
Degenerative arthritis follows trauma to the
knee joint. Scar tissue develops in and around the joint, causing pain and
stiffness. These arthritic problems are less likely to occur if the joint is
repaired surgically. Chondroprotective supplements can greatly aid in delaying
the onset of arthritis.
WebMD Veterinary Reference from "Cat Owner's Home Veterinary Handbook"